3-4 2011 Content

86 (2011) 3-4: 10 Years of War against Terrorism

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United we fight? The United Nations in the Fight against Terrorism since 9/11  
Patrick Rosenow

Ten years after 9/11 the architecture of international organizations has changed significantly. This also affects the United Nations, including its organizational structure and responsibilities. Despite the fact, that there is still no definition of terrorism, the Security Council and the General Assembly approved extensive Counter-Terrorism strategies including the reform of UN structure since 9/11. While the Security Council transforms continuously into the role of a “world legislator”, the General Assembly’s aim is to limit the Council’s power with a broad approach to fighting terrorism and in consideration of human rights. The UN Secretaries-General Kofi Annan and Ban Ki-moon initiated proposals to combat terrorism as well. But all these measures should not hide the fact that the disagreement among the Member States challenges the UN’s ability to combat transnational terrorism.

Strategies against Insecurity. European Security Measures after 9/11   
Mathias Bug / Sebastian Enskat / Susanne Fischer / Philipp Klüfers / Jasmin Röllgen / Katrin Wagner

Faced with the threat of transnational terrorism, the European Union and its member states have adopted a broad range of new security measures. Remarkably though, when comparing different European countries, these measures differ immensely in terms of implementation and scale. This article analyzes these differences, trying to identify the crucial factors causing them. In particular, the article focuses on security measures in the areas of information and communications technology, civil aviation and video surveillance. For each issue area the article compares national policies in Britain and Germany as well as the impact of the EU level on both countries.

What’s in a Name? The Categorisation of Individuals under the Laws of Armed Conflict  
Noam Lubell

This article examines matters relating to the categorisation of individuals under the laws of armed conflict, with particular reference to issues that have been at the centre of attention in the past decade, including the debates over the notion of direct participation by civilians and, in particular, the so called ‘war on terror’. The focus of this article is on the actual effects of categorisation of individuals – particularly in the conduct of hostilities – and whether the controversies over the labels used are in fact a major concern or, perhaps, more of a distracting smokescreen.

Operation Enduring Freedom and the Right of Self-defense against Terrorists   
Christian Schaller

Operation Enduring Freedom is aimed at combating terrorists not only in Afghanistan but across the globe. According to the US government, the use of force was still justified under the right of self-defense in response to 9/11 and the continuing attacks by al-Qaeda. The global reach as well as the long-time perspective of the operation, however, raises fundamental questions in terms of the inherent limits of the right to self-defense. The legal leeway of action to a large extent depends on how the concept of an armed attack is interpreted with regard to the threat posed by international terrorism.

The Alleged Link between Failed States and Global Terrorism 
Aidan Hehir

A central claim in the articulated rationale behind the “war on terror” suggests that failed states play a key role in the international terrorist nexus and require external intervention and guided democratization. This logic is based on two related premises: firstly, that there is a direct link between failed states and international terrorism, and secondly, that democratic governance reduces the recourse of organized groups to terrorism. This article suggests that there is no empirical evidence for the alleged causal link and that it is exaggerated to assume that democratic governance has the ability to catalyze a reduction in terrorism.

“Generation 9/11”? About the Social Effects of the Terrorist Attacks in Germany   
Daniela Schiek / Carsten G. Ullrich

This contribution discusses the question of the social effects of 9/11. After the time diagnoses have been dismissed because of their simplistic approach and their lack of empirical underpinning, generations are an adequate instrument to study social change and tendencies. Is there a new generation which members articulate collective patterns of interpretation and demands on political structuring because of the terrorist attacks? After describing the criteria for new sociological generations, the article presents the state-of-the-art and discursive indications of a “Generation 9/11”. People belonging to this generation, 30 to 40 years of age nowadays, are rather convinced of the necessity for war, military and security programs and have changed their political positions on questions of international relations.