82 (2007) 1: Peacekeeping Operations Put to Test
ArticlesCriteria, Interests and Problems of German Participation in International Peace Operations. When? Where? Why?
Since the early 90’s the German involvement in international peace operations has significantly increased. Unfortunately, this is not matched by a corresponding acceptance of these involvements by the German public. Indeed, there is a steady downward trend. The article describes the complexity of the current new security threats and explains why they can hardly be addressed by traditional security policy approaches. The paper discusses possible variations of deployment criteria for German participation, whether an explicit and binding set of criteria would be useful and how German interests could be better defined. The new threats need to be much better explained to the German public in their relevance to the long-term welfare, security and stability of Germany and Europe at large.
Peace-Building in the Western Balkan
International missions in the Western Balkans have contributed to prevent a relapse of the region into outright war. But peacebuilding outcomes are ambivalent. This is exemplified by the cases of Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia. International Organizations did provide important incentives for political reform and institution building. But Bosnia und Kosovo are still a long way from political integration and a stable peace. The case of Macedonia, on the other hand, shows that the international community has learned some lessons. But it can be concluded that all missions lacked coherence: what is missing is an integrative concept linking security and rule of law, building of democratic institutions, civil society building and economic stabilization. Designing economic perspectives will be one of the crucial challenges for future politics towards the Western Balkans.
The Emperor’s New Clothes: The Unravelling of Peacebuilding in Afghanistan
Using the Afghan experience, the article tries to challenge existing approaches to peacebuilding, criticizing the absence of critical assessments prior to international engagement and efficient monitoring. Standardized processes and sequences applied to peace processes, especially exporting of western experiences, are questioned. Existing dilemmas are highlighted, such as goal conflicts between waging war vs. making peace, realistic time-frames vs. donor requirements, top-down vs. bottom-up grass-roots approaches (especially in the area of democratization), and local capacity building vs. importing expertise. The argument centers on the importance of people, both architects of peacebuilding, as well as the affected population.
Peace Missions in Africa: Trends, Results and German Contribution
The number of multilaterally authorized military missions with the objective of peace consolidation has increased considerably in Africa since the turn of the millennium. Parallel to the growth of the number of peace mission there has been a trend towards “Africanisation” both within UN missions as through the build-up of military capacities by the African Union. This trend is partially fed by the unwillingness of industrialized countries to deploy troops under UN control. The African Union is dependent on their financial and logistical support, and industrialized countries intervene in critical situations with troops under their own command, if it is in their interests. This division of labour is also be found in the two EU missions ARTEMIS and EUFOR DR Congo, in which German troops participated.
The Summer War of 2006 - Final Comments
Interrogating the Human Security Report
Andrew Mack / Eric Nicholls