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84 (2009) 4: The EU in Matters of Security Policy
The European Security Strategy: the EU and its Search for a Strategic Concept
Arnold H. Kammel / Franco Algieri
The adoption of the European Security Strategy (ESS) in December 2003 marked the first attempt of the EU member states to provide a strategic framework for the EU’s foreign and security policy. This paper describes the evolutionary development of the ESS and its content. Furthermore, it analyses the Report on the Implementation of the ESS adopted five years later in December 2008. Already shortly after the publication of the ESS it was obvious that this document had been a compromise among the member states, but it did not offer substantial answers to the challenges the EU is facing in the 21st century. Against that background the paper ends by elaborating how far the EU has been strengthened as a global strategic actor with these two documents.
The Strategic Aims and Political Motives of ESDP Operations
Does the European Security Strategy (ESS) serve as the guiding principle for the deployment of ESDP operations? Drawing on an analysis of EU documents as well as on expert interviews, this article provides an assessment of the strategic aims and political motives behind ESDP operations. It concludes that in many cases a driving force has been to defend Europe’s internal security, particularly by focussing on capacity-building and on fighting organized cross-border crime. By contrast, “altruistic” humanitarian motives have mostly played a lesser role. Rather, political symbolism in terms of demonstrating EU commitment in crises is often a key factor.
A First Step towards the Implementation of the European Security Strategy: The European Union’s Strategy against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction
The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction has been at the centre of international security-political matters for a long time. The European Union subsequently adopted a Strategy against the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction on 12 December 2003. This strategy has been prepared within the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy; and is a part of the European Security Strategy. This article focuses mainly on the implementation of the Nonproliferation Strategy since 2004. Over the last few years the EU has achieved it’s aims; although there has been an absence of close cooperation with the United States to solve the conflict with Iran‘s nuclear program. In spite of this, it is argued that the EU has a very important role to play within the political realms of international security. The Union is making a significant contribution towards preventing the spread of WMD as well as confronting the threat of terrorism. The EU will therefore have a major influence and impact on other states while simultaneously delivering on the changes and implementation of its Security Strategy.
Erosion of Sovereignty? The Transformation of the State Monopoly on the External Use of Force in the Context of the European Security and Defence Policy
The institutionalization of the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) within the EU entails the formation of new administrative and executive units, structures, that henceforth shape member state action. Against this background, the contribution poses the question of national autonomy: Does co-operative problem-solving in the issue area of security and defence within the Union amount to a significant erosion of external state sovereignty? The article outlines the institutional design of ESDP and inquires the role of intergouvernemental bodies as well as more independent European bureaucracies, with which member-states now have to cope with. Also, civil society actors have now obtained a remarkable, albeit circum-scribed amount of influence within EU security politics. Moreover, the entangling of national capabilities, a move toward greater role specialization, and the denationalization of the process of force generation, point in the direction of an integration of armament and defence. In sum, there is a diffusion of responsibilities and member-states are facing a certain loss of autonomy.
Causes of the Long Peace in Europe: Western Security Institutions and the Management of Rivalries in Western Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean
By comparing the French-German and Greek-Turkish relationship, this article argues that inter-democratic institutions, due to their specific form, contribute substantively to peace. They constitute the missing link in the causal chain of the Democratic Peace; and they provide a solution to the puzzle, why some institutions create peace while others fail spectacularly. In Western Europe, NATO and the EU, in combination with the democratic order of its member states, developed strong trans-national and trans-governmental networks. These networks facilitated the exchange of credible information, necessary for the peaceful management of a strategic rivalry. In the Eastern Mediterranean, NATO regressed into a purely intergovernmental organisation and proved unable to mitigate the security dilemma.